The concept of this perpetual wheel has been patented in 1823.
That invention is fully described in book "Mechanical Appliances and Novelties of Construction" published in 1927 by Gardner D. Hiscox, Mechanical Engineer, and Norman W. Henley.
The engine described in the video herebelow is of a relatively simple design.
A strong magnet set in the open slot between sides of the wheel attracts an iron ball.
The magnet is supposed to draw the ball to one side of the center to make the wheel permanently unbalanced.
It is important to note that the static potential energy of the magnetic force is converted into pure kinetic energy.
We assume that the ball rolls and slips on the inner track of the wheel.
The various inventoried losses of this motor are :
Balance of forces
Balance of forces along y_{1} axis :
Balance of forces along x_{1} axis :
We have the following relationship between R_{rf} and R :
Then, it comes:
Expressing the following equalities :
It comes then :
In this formula, the following terms are known: F _{magnet}, m, g, α and θ. α is the angle of the rolling friction.
The combined gravity and magnetic forces cause an unbalance of the rolling ball which is not compensated by an equal and opposite reaction force. The ball is forced to rotate and this rotation drives the main wheel by means of rolling friction force.
Due to violation of Newton's third law, there is creation of excess positive energy from potential energy supplied by static magnetic and gravitic fields.
Static potential energy is thus converted into kinetic energy by that perpetual wheel.
Calculation of drive torque
The drive torque is equal to T_{drive} = F_{resulting }x r , soit:
Calculation of inlet power
Excepting parasitic movements linked to instantaneous instabilities of operation and taking the assumption of a constant angle theta, one can verify that the magnetic and gravity forces provide no power to mechanism. These two forces are involved only in maintaining an unstable state. Then:
Calculation of drive power
The sliding coefficient r_{slip} of the ball on the inner race of the wheel is expressed by the following formula:
, then :
Let's calculate the drive power : P_{drive} = T_{drive} . ω'
with
Let's calculate the outlet power : P_{outlet} = F_{resulting} . R . ω
It has to be noted that:
and :
Calculation of COP (coefficient of performance)
P_{net outlet} = P_{outlet}- P_{wheel friction losses}
P_{wheel friction losses} = 1% P_{outlet} and
P_{net outlet} = 0,99 P_{outlet}
Calculation of COE (coefficient of energy)
Numerical application
r = 0,015 m - R = 0,15 m - g = 9,81 m/s² - θ = 30° - tan α = 0,001 - r _{slip} = 10% - ω = 60 rpm = 6,2832 rd/s - B = 0,4 T - μ_{0} = 4 π 10^{-7} - μ_{r} = 1,0000004 - S = 0,01 x 0,01 = 10^{-4} m²
F_{magnet} = 6,366 N
m = 0,014 kg
F_{resulting} = 5,442 N
T_{drive} = 0,041 mN
P_{drive} = 5,700 W
P_{outlet} = 5,130 W
P_{ rolling losses} = 0,570 W
P_{ net outlet} = 5,078 W
P_{ wheel friction losses} = 0,052 W
COP = ∞
COE = ∞
An improved design of the mechanism would consist to machine teethed surfaces on the inner track of the wheel and the outer surface of the central part of a cylinder (ball replaced by a cylinder). Each end of the cylinder has a rolling cylindrical surface of same diameter as the gear pitch diameter on central part.
Thus, the sliding of the two contact surfaces is cancelled and the operation of the wheel is more stable.